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What is a fish?

A fish is any aquatic vertebrate animal that is typically ectothermic (or cold-blooded), covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. Fish are abundant in the sea and in fresh water, with species being known from mountain streams (e.g., char and gudgeon) as well as in the deepest depths of the ocean (e.g., gulpers and anglerfish).

Food prepared from fish is also called fish, and it is an important food source for humans. They are harvested either from wild fisheries (see fishing) or farmed in much the same way as cattle or chickens (see aquaculture). They are also exploited by recreational fishers and fishkeepers, and are exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in many cultures through the ages, ranging from deities and religious symbols to the subjects of books and popular movies.

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Plain text

In computing, plain text is a term used for an ordinary "unformatted" sequential file readable as textual material without much processing.

The encoding has traditionally been either ASCII, one of its many derivatives such as ISO/IEC 646 etc., or sometimes EBCDIC. No other encodings are used in plain text files which neither contain any (character-based) structural tags such as heading marks, nor any typographic markers like bold face, italics, etc.

Unicode is today gradually replacing the older ASCII derivatives limited to 7 or 8 bit codes. It will probably serve much the same purposes, but this time permitting almost any human language as well as important punctuation and symbols such as mathematical relations (≠ ≤ ≥ ≈), multiplication (× •), etc, which are not included in the more restricted ASCII set.

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A logical language

Lojban (pronounced [ˈloʒban]) is a constructed, syntactically unambiguous human language based on predicate logic. Its predecessor is Loglan, the original logical language by James Cooke Brown.

Development of the language began in 1987 by The Logical Language Group (LLG), who intended to realize Loglan's purposes as well as further complement the language by making it more usable, and freely available (as indicated by its official full English name "Lojban: a realization of Loglan"). After a long initial period of debating and testing, the baseline was completed in 1998 with the publication of The Complete Lojban Language. The name "Lojban" is a combination of loj and ban, which are short forms of logji (logic) and bangu (language), respectively.

The principal sources of its basic vocabulary were the six (at the time) most widely spoken languages: Mandarin, English, Hindi, Spanish, Russian, and Arabic, chosen to reduce the unfamiliarity or strangeness of the root words to people of diverse linguistic backgrounds. The language has drawn on other constructed languages' components, a notable instance of which is Láadan's set of indicators[1].

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